Annontated Bibiliography – Tom Brophy, Paul Fleck, Andy Gniadek

White Paper: Small Screen Big Ticket – Why Machinima is good for Hollywood & the Movie Industry

Annotated Bibliography

Analysis of MMOG Subscription Growth – Version 21.0
Retrieved 10/26/2007 from,
Online resource of current statistics on user and subscription numbers.

Berkeley, L (2006), Situating Machininma in the New Mediascape.
Australian Journal of Emerging Technologies and Society 2006, Vol. 4, No.2, 2006, pp: 65-80.

This article investigates the emerging internet phenomenon machinima as an example of media convergence occurring between video games, films, music and the web. The author focuses on the distinctive features of producing machinima content, and the interaction of creator and 3d game environment.

Boxer, Steve, (2006), Technology: Time for a new episode in the never-ending story:
The next big thing for the industry – episodic gaming, where games are sold singly at regular intervals – could be the precursor to moves to distribute games digitally. The Guardian (London), April 6, 2006.

This article gives brief description of machinima as a part of a new, and important emerging business model for the media industry.

“Budget for M. Night Shyamalan’s “The Village”” The Smoking Gun. 28 Feb. 2006.
15 Oct. 2007 <;.

This budget breakdown for “The Village” is useful tool in gauging where all the money goes in a Hollywood production. From this, we can see where various production costs can be cut when a director chooses to use machinima to film his picture.

Colbourne, Scott, (2006), The Films Millions of Gamers Love. The Globe and Mail,
June 14, 2006.

This article gives market details on the size of the machininma viewership market place, and the opportunity defined by its reach.

Fritz, Ben, (2007), Hollywood Org Honors Vidgame Producer, Daily Variety,
January 19, 2007.

This article describes the PGA Vangaurd Award being given to a non-Hollywood, video game creator and producer f the Sims, Will Wright.

PROMOTES IT AS OSCAR NOMINEE CONTENDER.” New World Notes. 04 Sept. 2007. 17 Oct. 2007 <;.

This source details the purchase by HBO of a documentary film made entirely in Second Life. It marks the first time a director, Douglas Gaeyton, has sold the rights to a work made in a Second Life environment to a major TV network. This helps to demonstrate Hollywood’s need to capitalize on the technology before the grassroots creators undercut them.

Hoffman, Allan, (2006), Machinima an Art of Computer Games. Newhouse News
Service, December 12, 2006.

This article gives brief description of machinima as a part of a new, and important emerging computer-based art form.

Jones, M. (2005) Machininma and The Filmmaker’s Virtual Immersion.
Metro Magazine, 145, 135-137.

This article focuses on how machinima is uses 3d worlds, video techniques and the latest technology to put the power of cinema-making in to the hands of the masses.

Kahney, Leander. “Games Invade Hollywood’s Turf.” Wired. 07 Sept. 03. 14 Oct.

This article discusses the emergence of machinima as a viable medium for commercial film and video production. With the existence of machinima film festivals, regular rotation machinima music videos, and the Academy of Machinima Arts and Sciences, the medium is beginning to evolve and hold weight outside of the tight knit gaming circles it evolved from. Companies such as Epic Games, who offered a $50,000 prize to the best machinima film in their Make Something Unreal competition, demonstrate the perceived value of the technology by industry players.

Krotoski, Aleks. “The Making of Machinima.” The Guardian. 18 Apr. 2005. 24 Oct.
2007 <;.

Krotoski informs us of how Hollywood is already beginning to jump in on the machinima bandwagon. Animators are already looking into how they can use these computer game engines to fashion their latest motion pictures. Industry big wigs George Lucas and Steven Spielberg have already toyed with machinima as tool for their preproduction storyboarding.

Lights, Joystick, Action: Masters of Machinima; Macphearson, S. Atomic; 2005 Issue 49, p42-46, 5p

Lowood, Henry, Stanford University (2005) Real-Time Performance: Machinima
and Game Studies. iDMAa Journal, pp:10-36.

This article discusses the importance of machinima in games studies, the extension of machinima creativity and its connection to online gaming communities, remediation of narrative media (video, film, music) and technology.

Lowood, Henry, Stanford University (2005) High-Performance Play: The Making of
Machinima. Videogames and Art: Intersections and Interactions.

This article describes the Machinima phenomenon and its role in and effect on the medium of linear storytelling, artistic expression, and influence on narrative   media.

Matlack, Carol, (2005), Video Games Go to the Movies; Machinima, which uses
game elements to create films, just might be ready for primetime. Business Week, December 9, 2005.

This technology article defines machinima and the development process for creating it.

Matlack, Carol, Grover, Ronald (2005), Young Spielbergs By The Thousands;
Machinima – making movies using video game software – starts to explode.  Business Week, December 19, 2005.

This article describes the explosion of machinima and cites the example of Alex Chan and his film – “French Democracy,” and the opportunity that is available to young film makers producing independent content.

Newitz, Annalee. “Machinima for the Masses.” Wired. 25 Jan. 2006. 18 Oct. 2007

Newitz’s article explains how new programs are giving every Tom, Dick , and Harry the tools to create their own machinima films and challenge their Hollywood counterparts. Lionhead Studio’s The Movies is a machinima-based game that allows the director to control all aspects of the production. With cross software compatibility and an in game editor, the director can twist an empty world into their vision. With these kinds of new resources, new filmmakers will be able to develop their skills more quickly and contribute to Hollywood.

Nieborg, David B., (2005) Am I Mod or Not? – An analysis of First Person Shooter
modification culture. Paper presented at Creative Gamers Seminar – Exploring Participatory Culture in Gaming. Hypermedia Laboratory (University of Tampere). 2005. Available:

This article looks at current trends in co-created content for first person shooter video games, and the relationship between these collaborative creation and the video game markets and existing intellectual property.

Pasha, Shaheen. “One Word for Hollywood: Machinima.” CNN Money. 12 Aug.
2005. 22 Oct. 2007 < >.

Pasha examines the financial aspects of machinima and traditional filmmaking, outlining that a five minute short can cost as little as $600 to produce from start to finish using this new technology. From author’s research into the application of such technology, it looks as though the value of machinima lies in its ability to use game engines to create entertainment experiences outside the content and story of the games themselves, as movies based on video game have had a dodgy history.

Rasmussen, Peter. “Why Machinima is Different.” Nanoflix.Net Blog. 29 Apr. 2007.
22 Oct. 2007 <;.

As Rasmussen points out, one of the best, ways for filmmakers to learn how to make films is to do it. Therefore, this technology empowers the amateur filmmaker to have the control and resources of the big budget director. This can be seen in Hollywood as a viable tool for aspiring filmmakers and film students, as well as create a forum for the industry to pool potential talent.

Sterry, Mike. “Guerilla Gaming.” The Guardian. 18 Nov. 2006. 16 Oct. 2007

Sterry speaks of the growing acceptance of machinima as an emergent art form among man cinema scholars. He explains the concept as a sort of “digital puppetry”, leaving the director only a story, dialogue, and a bit of camera work to make a viable movie. We can understand Hollywood’s possible interest in circumventing the big payoffs and major personalities that come with marquee stars by using virtual characters.

Stuart, Audrey and Makris, Sophie, (2007), Film World Zooms in the Future in a Digital World. Agence France Presse, May 18, 2007.

This article discusses and argues that the future of the film industry is digital media, and that the film industry needs to embrace, the technology or it faces a similar situation as the music industry.

Thompson, Clive, The Xbox Auteurs [Electronic version]. New York Times,
August 7, 2005.

This article discusses machinima, its origins, techniques and similarities to current trends in the Indie film industry.

Zammit, Deanna, (2006), Small Screen, Big Ideas. ADWEEK.COM, January 9,

This article describes how the small screen (youtube, etc…) is changing the creative landscape, offering new opportunities to creative and technical minds.

Nickelback music video using Everquest 2.  This is a study of how machinima is made to threaten music videos.

Another music video using 3 doors down When I’m gone.
This is using Final Fantasy 7, which was released on Sony Playstation and received critical acclaim as one of the best in the very long series. Final Fantasy 8 is featured as well, along with inal Fantasy 10, another critically acclaimed title in the series.

Nickelback Hero is used in this Machinima.  Final
Fantasy 8 is used to portray it.  Here, the user creates no original footage but instead splices game footage into a music video using Nickelback in the background.

Counting Crows is used in this machinima.
It is another attempt at music video machinima.

A compilation of four popular MMO cinematics:
World of Warcraft, EQ2, Lineage 2, and FFXI.
The machinima creater spliced them together to make a movie about fantasy games and movies. Critically, it puts the cinematics created by the games themselves to complete shame. It proves that not all companies know best.


One thought on “Annontated Bibiliography – Tom Brophy, Paul Fleck, Andy Gniadek

  1. Pingback: Hollywood » Annontated Bibiliography - Tom Brophy, Paul Fleck, Andy Gniadek

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